Tag Archive | Retinal

Chapter 230 – Glaucomas Associated with Abnormalities of Cornea and Iris, Tumors, and Retinal Disease

Chapter 230 – Glaucomas Associated with Abnormalities of Cornea and Iris, Tumors, and Retinal Disease   STEVEN T. SIMMONS ANTHONY ECONOMOU           DEFINITION • A heterogeneous group of disorders of the anterior and posterior segments resulting in secondary glaucoma.   KEY FEATURES • Iris abnormalities. • Previous intraocular surgery. • Rhegmatogenous […]

Chapter 217 – Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis

Chapter 217 – Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis   NEIL T. CHOPLIN   INTRODUCTION Patients at risk for glaucoma may have optic nerves and visual fields of normal appearance, but they may still have nerve fiber layer defects that are indicative of early, undetected glaucomatous damage.[1] Thus, assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer is […]

Chapter 187 – Differentiation of Optic Nerve from Retinal Macular Disease

Chapter 187 – Differentiation of Optic Nerve from Retinal Macular Disease   ALFREDO A. SADUN           DEFINITION • Optic nerve disease involves injury of the retinal ganglion cells and hence the axons that constitute the optic nerve, whereas macular disease involves injury to the retina in the fovea and parafoveal areas. […]

Chapter 157 – Hypertrophy of Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Chapter 157 – Hypertrophy of Retinal Pigment Epithelium   JAMES J. AUGSBURGER JAMES P. BOLLING           DEFINITION • Benign congenital lesion of retinal pigment epithelium.   KEY FEATURES • Gray to black, well-defined, thin, circular, oval or geographic lesion deep to sensory retina. • Unifocal or multifocal, typical and atypical forms. […]

Chapter 136 – Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

Chapter 136 – Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment   CHARLES P. WILKINSON           DEFINITION • A condition in which fluid from the vitreous cavity passes through a full-thickness retinal defect into the subretinal space to cause separation of the neural retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).   KEY FEATURES • Seen […]

Chapter 135 – Retinal Breaks

Chapter 135 – Retinal Breaks   CRAIG M. GREVEN           DEFINITION • A full-thickness defect in the neural retina.   KEY FEATURES • A round, oval, or horseshoe-shaped defect. • Typical location near the vitreous base, but can occur anywhere. • Subcategories are holes, tears, or dialyses.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • […]

Chapter 134 – Peripheral Retinal Lesions

Chapter 134 – Peripheral Retinal Lesions   WILLIAM S. TASMAN           DEFINITION AND KEY FEATURES • A heterogeneous group of anatomical variations, degenerative changes, and pathological processes that can be observed ophthalmoscopically in the anterior neural retina and ora serrata region.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Best observed with indirect ophthalmoscopy and […]

Chapter 123 – Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms

Chapter 123 – Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms   JANICE E. CONTRERAS ROBERT A. MITTRA WILLIAM F. MIELER JOHN S. POLLACK           DEFINITION • Localized fusiform or saccular dilation of a retinal arterial vessel within the first three orders of bifurcation.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal hemorrhage (intraretinal, subretinal, preretinal, and vitreous). • […]

Chapter 120 – Coats’ Disease and Retinal Telangiectasia

Chapter 120 – Coats’ Disease and Retinal Telangiectasia   JULIA A. HALLER           DEFINITION • A localized, congenital, retinal vascular disorder that consists of abnormal telangiectatic segments of blood vessels that result in leakage.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal telangiectasia. • Retinal capillary nonperfusion. • Dilated intercapillary spaces. • Lipid exudate. […]

Chapter 114 – Retinal Arterial Obstruction

Chapter 114 – Retinal Arterial Obstruction   JAY S. DUKER         Central Retinal Artery Obstruction Branch Retinal Artery Obstruction   DEFINITION • An abrupt diminution of blood flow through the central retinal artery severe enough to cause ischemia of the inner retina.   KEY FEATURES • Abrupt, painless, severe loss of vision. […]