Tag Archive | Optic

Chapter 218 – Optic Nerve Blood Flow Measurement

Chapter 218 – Optic Nerve Blood Flow Measurement   COLM O’BRIEN ALON HARRIS   INTRODUCTION The fact that a substantial number of glaucoma patients (perhaps up to 30%) have normal intraocular pressure (IOP) at the time of initial diagnosis indicates that risk factors other than IOP alone contribute to the pathogenesis of optic nerve damage […]

Chapter 194 – Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

Chapter 194 – Traumatic Optic Neuropathies   THOMAS C. SPOOR           DEFINITION • Optic nerve damage after cranio-orbital trauma.   KEY FEATURES • Decreased visual acuity. • Relative afferent pupillary defect. • Visual field defects.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Optic nerve infarction. • Orbital or optic nerve sheath hematoma. • Central […]

Chapter 193 – Prechiasmal Pathways—Compression by Optic Nerve and Sheath Tumors

Chapter 193 – Prechiasmal Pathways—Compression by Optic Nerve and Sheath Tumors   THOMAS C. SPOOR           DEFINITION • Optic nerve dysfunction as a result of compression by tumor or aneurysm anywhere along the nerve’s course from globe to chiasm.   KEY FEATURES • Progressive visual field loss. • Relative afferent pupillary […]

Chapter 192 – Hereditary, Nutritional, and Toxic Optic Atrophies

Chapter 192 – Hereditary, Nutritional, and Toxic Optic Atrophies   ALFREDO A. SADUN SEVGI GURKAN           DEFINITION • Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, which arises from an inherited point mutation in mitochondrial DNA, manifests in young adulthood as a distinctive heredodegenerative optic neuropathy. • Nutritional deficiency states, particularly those that involve the […]

Chapter 191 – Ischemic Optic Neuropathy, Diabetic Papillopathy, and Papillophlebitis

Chapter 191 – Ischemic Optic Neuropathy, Diabetic Papillopathy, and Papillophlebitis   ANTHONY C. ARNOLD           DEFINITION • Acute, painless optic neuropathy occurring predominantly in patients over 50 years of age. • Additional acute pathologies of the optic disc may be associated with diabetes and venous congestion.   KEY FEATURES • Optic […]

Chapter 190 – Inflammatory Optic Neuropathies and Neuroretinitis

Chapter 190 – Inflammatory Optic Neuropathies and Neuroretinitis   LAURA J. BALCER ROY W. BECK           DEFINITION • Optic neuritis refers to inflammation of the optic nerve. Such inflammation may spare the optic disc (retrobulbar optic neuritis) or may cause optic disc swelling (papillitis).   KEY FEATURES • Abrupt vision loss. […]

Chapter 188 – Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies

Chapter 188 – Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies   MICHAEL C. BRODSKY           DEFINITION • Unusual configurations of the optic disc(s) typically present since birth.   KEY FEATURE • Small, pale, or unusually shaped optic discs may reflect mere curiosities or significant anomalies associated with visual defects.   ASSOCIATED FEATURE • Abnormalities […]

Chapter 132 – Coexistent Optic Nerve and Macular Abnormalities

Chapter 132 – Coexistent Optic Nerve and Macular Abnormalities   GARY C. BROWN MELISSA M. BROWN           DEFINITION • A heterogeneous group of optic nerve disorders that have secondary pathological effects on the macular retina.   KEY FEATURES • Structural changes of the optic nerve. • Secondary retinal detachment, retinoschisis, or […]