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CHAPTER 23 COMPOSITION OF THE ERYTHROCYTE

CHAPTER 23 COMPOSITION OF THE ERYTHROCYTE
Williams Hematology

CHAPTER 23 COMPOSITION OF THE ERYTHROCYTE

ERNEST BEUTLER
Chapter References

Quantitative data have been published about many of the components of the red cell, including minerals, carbohydrates, enzymes and other proteins, vitamins and lipids. Some of these are marred by the failure to rigorously remove white cells from the red cell pellet, but this chapter provides access to some of the large amount of data that is available.

The erythrocyte is a complex cell. The membrane is composed of lipids and proteins, and the interior of the cell contains metabolic machinery designed to maintain hemoglobin function. Each component of red blood cells may be expressed as a function of red cell volume, grams of hemoglobin, or square centimeters of cell surface. These expressions are usually interchangeable, but under certain circumstances each may have specific advantages. However, because disease may produce changes in the average red cell size, hemoglobin content, or surface area, the use of any of these measurements individually may, at times, be misleading.
For convenience and uniformity, data in the accompanying tables (Table 23-1, Table 23-2, Table 23-3, Table 23-4, Table 23-5, Table 23-6, Table 23-7, Table 23-8 and Table 23-9) have been expressed in terms of cell constituent per milliliter of red cell and per gram of hemoglobin; in many instances this has required recalculation of published data. These recalculations assume a hematocrit value of 45 percent and 33 g per deciliter concentration of hemoglobin in red cells. To obtain concentration per g hemoglobin the concentration per ml RBC may be multiplied by 3.03. Only some of the most commonly referred to constituents of the erythrocyte are listed here. More comprehensive data may be found at http://www.williamshematology.com. The reference on which each value is based is the first number presented in the last column of each table. Where applicable, additional confirmatory references are shown. Additional data and references may be found elsewhere.99,100 In some instances, only the percentage of the total of the type of constituent present is given. Data regarding activities of red cell enzymes are presented in Chap. 35. (The reader should be aware of the fact that proper care has not always been taken to remove leukocytes in isolating red cells, and in the case of constituents that are present in leukocytes at a much higher concentration than is present in erythrocytes this can produce misleading data.)

TABLE 23-1 HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE PROTEIN AND WATER CONTENT

COMPONENT
mg/ml RBC
REFERENCE

Water
721 ± 17.3
1,2
Total protein
371
2,3,4 and 5
Nonhemoglobin protein
9.2
2,3
Insoluble stroma protein
6.3
3
Protein from enzymes
2.9
3

TABLE 23-2 HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE LIPIDS

LIPID
mg/ml RBC
mg/g Hb
REFERENCE

Total lipid
5.10 ± 0.51
15.45 ± 1.54
6
Phospholipid
2.98 ± 0.2
9.03 ± 0.61
6
Plasmalogen
0.56
1.69
6
Total cholesterol (unesterified)
1.20 ± 0.08
3.63 ± 0.21
6,7
Fatty acids
2.00
6.06
6,8
Other
0.92 ± 0.18
2.78 ± 0.54
6
Fatty Acids as Percent of Total Fatty Acid

Lauric (n-C12)
0.3
9
Myristic (n-C14)
0.8
9
Pentoenoic (n-C15)
0.3
9
Palmitoleic (16:1)
1.1
9
Palmitic (n-C16)
41.0
9
(C17) branched
0.3
9
(n-C17)
0.3
9
Linoleic
15.3
9
Oleic
18.9
9
Oleic isomer
Trace
9
Stearic (n-C18)
7.9
9
Arachidonic (20:4)
7.9
9
C22 unsaturated (a)
2.5
9
C22 unsaturated (b)
2.0
9
Long-Chain Aldehydes as Percent of Total Aldehydes

n-C14
Trace
9
Branched C15
0.8
9
n-C15
0.6
9
Highly branched C16
Trace
9
C16 monoene
0.4
9
n-C16
24.2
9
Highly branched C17
1.7
9
Branched C17
7.5
9
n-C17
1.3
9
C18 monoene
6.0
9
Isomeric C18 monoene
2.8
9
n-C18
42.5
9
Unknown C19
2.9
9
Unknown C20
3.1
9
Unknown C21
5.6
9
Fatty Acids as Percent of Total Neutral Lipids Fatty Acids

n-C10
0.0–0.6
10
n-C12
1.1–2.2
10
n-C14
5.9–17.3
10
16:1
3.2–6.0
10
n-C16
15.2–22.6
10
18.2 and 3
11.4–21.1
10
18:1
28.8–29.1
10
n-C18
5.7–10.7
10
Unsaturated C19A
Trace
10
Arachidonic
7.4–8.3
10
Polyunsaturated C20
Trace
10

NOTE: Some results are shown as mean±standard deviation.b.

TABLE 23-3 HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE PHOSPHOLIPIDS

LIPID
AMOUNT
REFERENCE

Total phospholipids
2.98 ± 0.20 mg/ml RBC
6
Cephalin
1.17 (0.38–1.91) mg/ml RBC
6
Ethanolamine phosphoglyceride
29% of total phospholipid
6
Mean plasmalogen content
67% of ethanolamine phosphoglyceride
6
Serine phosphoglyceride
10% of total phospholipid
6
Mean plasmalogen content
8% of serine phosphoglyceride
6
Lecithin
0.32 (0.03–0.95) mg/ml
11
Sphingomyelin
0.12–1.13 mg/ml
11
Lysolecithin
1.82% of total phospholipids
12

NOTE: Some results are shown as mean±standard deviation.

TABLE 23-4 FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF ERYTHROCYTE PHOSPHOLIPIDS

SHORTHAND
DESIGNATION*
MIXED
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
(METHANOL FRACTION)
ETHANOLAMINE
SERINE
CHOLINE

12:0
0.1
. . .
. . .
0.1
14:0
0.5
0.2
Trace
0.5
14:0
0.3
0.2
Trace
0.3
16:0
28.8
18.9
7.1
33.0
cis 16:19
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.1
17:0
0.4
Trace
0.3
0.5
18:0
15.1
8.0
41.6
11.7
cis 18:19
18.3
21.6
7.9
17.9
trans 18:19
2.9
3.6
5.1
2.7
cis,cis 18:29,12
10.6
7.0
2.8
18.2
cis,cis,cis 18:39,12,15
. . .
Trace
. . .
. . .
19:0 iso or ante-iso
Trace
0.2
. . .
. . .
20:0
0.1
. . .
Trace
0.2
20:111
0.2
0.3
Trace
0.2
20:28,11
. . .
Trace
. . .
. . .
20:211,14
0.1
0.1
. . .
0.2
20:35,8,11
1.6
1.0
2.1
1.6
20:45,8,11,14
10.8
21.9
19.7
5.0
20:55,8,11,14,17
0.8
1.4
0.3
0.5
(22:unsat.?)
1.7
4.7
2.2
0.3
22:5
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.7
22:5
2.3
2.3
2.0
2.7
22:57,10,13,16,19
1.0
. . .
. . .
1.0
22.64,7,10,13,16,19
2.1
3.9
4.2
1.1
14:0
Trace
. . .
. . .
0.8
Branched 15:0
2.8
2.6
5.5
. . .
15:0 iso or ante-iso
0.1
. . .
0.4
. . .
15:0
0.2
0.3
. . .
. . .
Unknown
0.1
. . .
1.6
1.0
cis 16:19
Trace
. . .
. . .
0.2
16:0
18.2
15.9
17.1
49.8
Branched 17:0 unsat.?
0.9
1.5
. . .
. . .
Branched 17:unsat.?
2.4
3.0
. . .
. . .
Branched 17:0
5.8
5.5
11.3
6.9
17:0 iso or ante-iso
1.1
0.8
0.7
2.9
cis,cis 18:29,12
Trace
. . .
1.4
. . .
cis 18:19
6.8
7.0
5.4
5.3
18:1 isomer
13.2
18.8
10.5
7.7
18:0
37.1
40.4
32.3
19.2
Unknown
1.3
2.1
. . .
. . .

TABLE 23-5 NUCLEOTIDES

COMPOUND
µmol/ml RBC
REFERENCE

Adenosine monophosphate
0.021 ± 0.003
13,14,15,16,17,18 and 19
Adenosine diphosphate
0.216 ± 0.036
13,14,15,16,17 and 18
Adenosine triphosphate
1.35 ± 0.035
15,16,17,19,20,21 and 22
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
0.015 ± .0024
23
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
0.013 ± .0042
23
Guanosine diphosphate
0.018 ± 0.005
15
Guanosine triphosphate
0.052 ± 0.012
14,15
Inosine monophosphate
0.031 ± 0.005
15,16,17,18 and 19
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
24,25
Reduced Oxidized
0.0018 ± .001
0.049 ± .006
24,25
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
24,25
Reduced Oxidized
0.032 ± .002
0.0014 ± .0011
24,25
S-adenosylmethionine
0.005
26
Total nucleotide
1.534 ± 0.033
27
Uridine diphosphoglucose
0.031 ± 0.005
15,28
Uridine diphosphate N-acetyl glucosamine
0.018
28

NOTE: The results are given as mean±standard deviation.

TABLE 23-6 AMINO ACIDS AND OTHER NITROGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

COMPOUND
µmol/ml RBC
REFERENCE

Alanine
0.275 ± 0.060
29,30,31,32,33
a-Amino butyrate
0.016 ± 0.009
29,30,31
Arginine
0.040 ± 0.013
29,30,31,34,35
Asparagine
0.121 ± 0.041
29,30
Aspartate
0.306 ± 0.081*
29
Carnitine
0.23
36a,37
Citrulline
0.036 ± 0.005*
29
Glutamate
0.265 ± 0.089
29,31,38
Glutamine
0.624 ± 0.136
29,31,39
Glycine
0.347 ± 0.070
29,30
Histidine
0.086 ± 0.013
29,31,35,40
Isoleucine
0.058 ± 0.013
29,30
Leucine
0.110 ± 0.009
29,30
Lysine
0.139 ± 0.032
29,31,35
Methionine
0.015 ± 0.006
29,31,35
Ornithine
0.120 ± 0.028
29,31
Phenylalanine
0.049 ± 0.006
29,30,31,35
Proline
0.137 ± 0.035
29,30,31
Serine
0.149 ± 0.032
29,30
Taurine
0.349 ± 0.057
29
Threonine
0.116 ± 0.022
29,30,31
Tyrosine
0.059 ± 0.009
29,30,31,35
Valine
0.171 ± 0.028
29,30,31,35
Creatine
0.33 ± 0.11
41
Creatinine
0.159
42
Cystine
0.016 ± 0.002
35
Ergothioneine
0.355 ± 0.112
31
Ethanolamine
0.007
31
Glutathione oxidized
0.0036 ± 0.0014
43
Glutathione reduced
2.234 ± 0.354
13
Tryptophan
0.024 ± 0.004
31,34,35,44
Uric acid
0.113
31,42
Urea
4.121 ± 0.420
31

*Measured in samples treated with sodium sulfite before analysis.
NOTE: The results are given as mean±standard deviation.

TABLE 23-7 HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE COENZYME AND VITAMINS

COMPOUND
µmol/ml RBC
REFERENCE

Ascorbic acid
0.0199 ± 0.0023
45,46,47
Choline (free)
Trace
48
Cocarboxylase
0.00021
49
Coenzyme A
0.0027
50
Nicotinic acid
0.105
51
Pantothenic acid
0.001 ± 0.00028
52
Pyridoxine (pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
1% –10–5
53
Riboflavin
0.00059 ± 0.00021
54
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
0.000398 ± 0.000042
55
Thiamine
0.00027
56

NOTE: The results are given as mean±standard deviation.

TABLE 23-8 HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE CARBOHYDRATES, ORGANIC ACIDS, AND METABOLITES

COMPOUND
µmol/ml RBC
REFERENCE

Deoxyribonucleic acid
Trace
57
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
0.0094 ± 0.0028
13
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate
4.171 ± 0.636
13,17,21,22
Fructose 6-P
0.0093 ± 0.002
13,16,21,58
Fructose 3-P
0.013 ± .001
59,60
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
48 ± 13*
61
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate
0.0019 ± 0.0006
13,16,17,21,58
Glucuronic acid
Trace
62
Glucose
In equilibrium with plasma
63,64
Glucose 6-P
0.0278 ± 0.0075
13,16,21,58
Glucose 1,6-diphosphate
0.18–0.30
16,65
Glyceraldehyde 3-P
Not detectable
13
Lactic acid
0.932 ± 0.211
3,13,66
Mannose 1,6-diphosphate
0.150
65
Octulose 1,8-diphosphate
Trace
67
Pyruvate
0.0533 ± 0.0215
13
3-Phosphoglycerate
0.0449 ± 0.0051
13,21
2-Phosphoglycerate
0.0073 ± 0.0025
13,21
Phosphoenol pyruvate
0.0122 ± 0.0022
13
Ribonucleic acid
1.355 mg
68
Ribose 1,5-diphosphate
<0.02
69,70
Ribulose 5-P
Trace
71
Sedoheptulose 7-P
Trace
71
Sedoheptulose diphosphate
Trace
72
Sialic acid
0.825 ± 0.028
69
Sorbitol
31.1 ± 5.3
60,73

*Values given in pmol.
NOTE: The results are given as mean±standard deviation.

TABLE 23-9 HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE ELECTROLYTES

ELECTROLYTE
µmol/ml RBC
REFERENCE

Aluminum
0.0026
74
Bromide
0.1225
75,76
Calcium
0.0089 ± 0.0030
76,77,78
Chloride
78
76,79
Chromium
0.0004
80
Cobalt
0.0002
76,81
Copper
0.018
80,82,83
Fluoride
0.0131
84
Iodine, protein-bound
0.0013
85
Lead
0.0082
74,86,83,76
Magnesium
3.06
80,87,88,89
Manganese
0.0034
74,90
Nickel
0.0009
80
Phosphorus (acid soluble):
Total P
13.2
91
Inorganic P
0.466
91
Lipid P
3.840
92
Unidentified P
0.955
91
Potassium
102.4 ± 3.9
93,94,95,87,96,97
Rubidium
0.054
76
Silicon
Trace
47
Silver
Trace
74
Sodium
6.2 ± 0.8
93,94,95
Sulfur
0.0044
98
Tin
0.0022
74
Zinc
0.153
80,99,100

NOTE: The results are given as mean.

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Books@Ovid
Copyright © 2001 McGraw-Hill
Ernest Beutler, Marshall A. Lichtman, Barry S. Coller, Thomas J. Kipps, and Uri Seligsohn
Williams Hematology

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2 comments on “CHAPTER 23 COMPOSITION OF THE ERYTHROCYTE

  1. Thanks a ton for your time to have decided to put these things together on this website. Janet and that i very much loved your insight through your articles in certain things. I’m sure that you have several demands in your schedule so the fact that a person like you took just as much time as you did to steer people like us through this article is actually highly prized.

  2. […] breakfastNutrition in the Digestive SystemQ&A: What is a good diet for an English BulldogCHAPTER 23 COMPOSITION OF THE ERYTHROCYTE ul.legalfooter li{ list-style:none; float:left; padding-right:20px; } .accept{ display:none; […]

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