Archive | February 2011

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Chapter 190 – Inflammatory Optic Neuropathies and Neuroretinitis

Chapter 190 – Inflammatory Optic Neuropathies and Neuroretinitis   LAURA J. BALCER ROY W. BECK           DEFINITION • Optic neuritis refers to inflammation of the optic nerve. Such inflammation may spare the optic disc (retrobulbar optic neuritis) or may cause optic disc swelling (papillitis).   KEY FEATURES • Abrupt vision loss. […]

Chapter 189 – Papilledema and Raised Intracranial Pressure

Chapter 189 – Papilledema and Raised Intracranial Pressure   ALFREDO A. SADUN           DEFINITION • Optic disc edema, usually bilateral, that results from increased intracranial pressure.   KEY FEATURES • Blurring of the optic disc margins. • Anterior extension of the nerve head. • Venous congestion of arcuate and peripapillary vessels. […]

Chapter 188 – Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies

Chapter 188 – Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies   MICHAEL C. BRODSKY           DEFINITION • Unusual configurations of the optic disc(s) typically present since birth.   KEY FEATURE • Small, pale, or unusually shaped optic discs may reflect mere curiosities or significant anomalies associated with visual defects.   ASSOCIATED FEATURE • Abnormalities […]

Chapter 187 – Differentiation of Optic Nerve from Retinal Macular Disease

Chapter 187 – Differentiation of Optic Nerve from Retinal Macular Disease   ALFREDO A. SADUN           DEFINITION • Optic nerve disease involves injury of the retinal ganglion cells and hence the axons that constitute the optic nerve, whereas macular disease involves injury to the retina in the fovea and parafoveal areas. […]

Chapter 186 – Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 186 – Anatomy and Physiology   ALFREDO A. SADUN           DEFINITION • The optic nerve, being a portion of the central nervous system, is really a tract and not a (peripheral) nerve. However, as a convention, the 1.2 million axons that derive from the retinal ganglion cells carry the name […]

Chapter 185 – Principles of Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmology

Chapter 185 – Principles of Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmology   SWARAJ BOSE           DEFINITION • Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, and ultrasonography are used in the neuro-ophthalmic evaluation of the anatomical, pathological, vascular, and functional status of the eye, orbit, visual pathways, brain, and ocular motor system. • Computed tomography • […]

Chapter 184 – Masquerade Syndromes: Neoplasms

Chapter 184 – Masquerade Syndromes: Neoplasms   RUSSELL W. READ           DEFINITION • Simulation of an inflammatory condition by a neoplastic process   KEY FEATURES • Usually bilateral, may have asymmetrical involvement • Cells in aqueous or vitreous humor or both • Older age or known history of malignancy elsewhere   […]