Archive | January 2011

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Chapter 169 – Endophthalmitis

Chapter 169 – Endophthalmitis   RUSSELL W. READ           DEFINITION • Inflammation within the anterior or posterior segment, or both, traditionally occurs with concurrent partial-thickness involvement of an adjacent ocular wall. Endophthalmitis may be either infectious or noninfectious.   KEY FEATURES • Decreased vision. • Anterior chamber or vitreous cellular reaction. […]

Chapter 168 – Cat-Scratch and Whipple’s Diseases

Chapter 168 – Cat-Scratch and Whipple’s Diseases   ROBERT C. WANG           DEFINITION • Cat-scratch and Whipple’s diseases are caused by Bartonella henselae and Tropheryma whippelii, respectively, and the ocular inflammation induced by these agents may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. KEY FEATURES Cat-scratch disease • Cat-scratch disease most […]

Chapter 167 – Spirochete Infections: Lyme Disease and Leptospirosis

Chapter 167 – Spirochete Infections: Lyme Disease and Leptospirosis   SOMASHEILA I. MURTHY NARSING A. RAO         Lyme Disease Leptospirosis   DEFINITION • Lyme disease is characterized by dermatological, neurological, cardiac, rheumatic, and ophthalmic manifestations that result from tick-borne transmission of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.   KEY FEATURES • Three chronological stages: […]

Chapter 166 – Tuberculosis, Leprosy, and Brucellosis

Chapter 166 – Tuberculosis, Leprosy, and Brucellosis   RAJEEV BUDDI           DEFINITIONS • Tuberculous uveitis is a granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can involve any part of the uveal tract. • Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the intracellular acid-fast bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. • Brucellosis […]

Chapter 165 – Syphilitic Uveitis

Chapter 165 – Syphilitic Uveitis   PRAVIN U. DUGEL ALLEN B. THACH           DEFINITION • A complex series of infectious and immunologically mediated intraocular inflammation initiated by Treponema pallidum.   KEY FEATURES • Intraocular inflammation. • Systemic manifestations. • Latent intraocular and/or systemic manifestations.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Chancres and gummatous […]

Chapter 164 – HIV-Related Uveitis

Chapter 164 – HIV-Related Uveitis   PRAVIN U. DUGEL ALLEN B. THACH           DEFINITION • In individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus, most of the ocular infections are caused by opportunistic organisms. The opportunistic infections include cytomegalovirus retinitis, progressive outer retinal necrosis, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, fungal chorioretinitis, infectious multifocal choroiditis, molluscum contagiosum, […]

Chapter 163 – Cytomegalovirus Retinitis (CMVR) in AIDS

Chapter 163 – Cytomegalovirus Retinitis (CMVR) in AIDS   EHUD ZAMIR           DEFINITION • Full-thickness, necrotizing retinitis caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).   KEY FEATURES • Slowly progressive, perivascular retinal whitening, hemorrhages, and necrosis. • “Brushfire” pattern of advancing edge. • Mild vitreous inflammatory response. • Profound […]

Chapter 162 – Herpes and Other Viral Infections

Chapter 162 – Herpes and Other Viral Infections   P. KUMAR RAO         Varicella-Zoster and Herpes Simplex Virus–Induced Acute Retinal Necrosis Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis   DEFINITION • A necrotizing retinitis caused by infection with VZV or HSV in an immunocompetent host.   KEY FEATURES • Severe uveitis or vitritis. • Retinal […]

Chapter 161 – General Approach to the Uveitis Patient and Treatment Strategies

Chapter 161 – General Approach to the Uveitis Patient and Treatment Strategies   DAVID J. FORSTER           DEFINITION • Uveitis is any condition that involves inflammation of the uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, choroid) or adjacent structures.   KEY FEATURES • Inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber and/or vitreous cavity.   […]

Chapter 160 – Anatomy of the Uvea

Chapter 160 – Anatomy of the Uvea   KAY L. PARK           DEFINITION • The uvea is a pigmented, vascular structure consisting of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.   KEY FEATURES • Supplies blood to most of the eye from anterior and posterior ciliary branches of the ophthalmic artery.   […]