Archive | January 2011

You are browsing the site archives by date.

Chapter 179 – Sympathetic Uveitis

Chapter 179 – Sympathetic Uveitis   GEORGE E. MARAK JR.           DEFINITION • A bilateral uveitis that develops after penetrating injury to one eye; believed to be an autoimmune disease.   KEY FEATURES • Bilateral anterior or posterior uveitis of variable severity with a uniform choroiditis. • Histopathologically, predominantly consists of […]

Chapter 178 – Phacoantigenic Uveitis

Chapter 178 – Phacoantigenic Uveitis   DAVID J. FORSTER           DEFINITION • Intraocular inflammation induced by lens protein, usually after surgical or traumatic rupture of the lens capsule.   KEY FEATURE • Anterior uveitis that occurs days to weeks after capsular disruption.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Acute, more severe cases are […]

Chapter 177 – Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

Chapter 177 – Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease   HAJIME INOMATA           DEFINITION • An idiopathic bilateral uveitis featuring exudative retinal detachment associated with extraocular involvement, including neurological symptoms.   KEY FEATURES • Bilateral granulomatous panuveitis. • Exudative retinal detachment. • Pigmentary changes in the eye in the chronic and recurrent phases (sunset glow […]

Chapter 176 – Behçet’s Disease

Chapter 176 – Behçet’s Disease   ANNABELLE A. OKADA NARSING A. RAO MASAHIKO USUI           DEFINITION • A multisystem vasculitis of unknown cause primarily involving the eyes, the mucosal surfaces, and the skin.   KEY FEATURES • Recurrent anterior and posterior uveitis. • Recurrent oral ulcers (aphthae). • Genital ulcers. • […]

Chapter 175 – Sarcoidosis

Chapter 175 – Sarcoidosis   CLAUDE L. COWAN JR.           DEFINITION • A multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized histologically by the presence of noncaseating granulomas.   KEY FEATURES • Anterior and posterior uveitis. • Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and/or pulmonary parenchymal disease.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Cutaneous lesions. • Neurological abnormalities, including optic […]

Chapter 174 – Uveitis Related to HLA-B27 and Juvenile Arthritis

Chapter 174 – Uveitis Related to HLA-B27 and Juvenile Arthritis   JUSTINE R. SMITH JAMES T. ROSENBAUM         Uveitis Related to HLA-B27 Uveitis Related to Juvenile Arthritis   DEFINITION • Ocular inflammation associated with HLA-B27.   KEY FEATURES • Recurrent unilateral acute (sudden onset) anterior uveitis. • Photophobia and ocular redness. • […]

Chapter 173 – Posterior Parasitic Uveitis

Chapter 173 – Posterior Parasitic Uveitis   JONATHAN D. WALKER           DEFINITION • Ocular inflammation as a result of infection with a helminthic parasite. The three most common are Toxocara canis, Cysticercus cellulosae, and microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. KEY FEATURES Toxocariasis • A result of ingesting eggs of Toxocara. • Intraocular […]

Chapter 172 – Ocular Toxoplasmosis

Chapter 172 – Ocular Toxoplasmosis   RALPH D. LEVINSON SARAH M. RIKKERS           DEFINITION • Intraocular inflammation due to infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.   KEY FEATURE • Focal retinochoroiditis.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Decreased vision. • Floaters. • Anterior uveitis. • Vitritis. • Retinal vasculitis and vascular occlusions. • […]

Chapter 171 – Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, and Coccidioidomycosis

Chapter 171 – Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, and Coccidioidomycosis   SHAILAJA VALLURI RAMANA S. MOORTHY           DEFINITION • A chronic intraocular inflammation induced by fungi such as Candida albicans, Coccidioides immitis, and Aspergillus spp.   KEY FEATURES • Candidal intraocular infection usually manifests as a fluffy white choroidal or retinal lesion with white […]

Chapter 170 – Histoplasmosis

Chapter 170 – Histoplasmosis   RAMANA S. MOORTHY JAMES A. FOUNTAIN           DEFINITION • Histoplasmosis is a chronic intraocular inflammation induced by Histoplasma capsulatum, a diphasic fungus.   KEY FEATURES • Ocular histoplasmosis can appear as an endophthalmitis or solitary granuloma or, more commonly, as a syndrome characterized by peripheral “punched-out” […]