Archive | December 2010

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Chapter 118 – Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

Chapter 118 – Ocular Ischemic Syndrome   MATTHEW T.S. TENNANT ARUNAN SIVALINGAM GREGORY M. FOX GARY C. BROWN           DEFINITION • Ocular signs and symptoms secondary to severe, chronic arterial hypoperfusion.   KEY FEATURES • Visual loss. • Blot retinal hemorrhages. • Dilated, beaded retinal veins. • Decreased ocular perfusion pressure. […]

Chapter 117 – Diabetic Retinopathy

Chapter 117 – Diabetic Retinopathy   BRETT J. ROSENBLATT WILLIAM E. BENSON           DEFINITION • Progressive dysfunction of the retinal vasculature caused by chronic hyperglycemia.   KEY FEATURES • Microaneurysms. • Retinal hemorrhages. • Retinal lipid exudates. • Cotton-wool spots. • Capillary nonperfusion. • Macular edema. • Neovascularization.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES […]

Chapter 116 – Retinopathy of Prematurity

Chapter 116 – Retinopathy of Prematurity   FRANCO M. RECCHIA ANTONIO CAPONE           DEFINITION • A disorder of premature, low-birth-weight infants featuring abnormal proliferation of developing retinal blood vessels at the junction of vascularized and avascular retina.   KEY FEATURES • Avascular, peripheral retina. • A demarcation line lying within the […]

Chapter 115 – Venous Obstructive Disease of the Retina

Chapter 115 – Venous Obstructive Disease of the Retina   MICHAEL G. MORLEY JEFFREY S. HEIER         Central Retinal Vein Obstruction Branch Retinal Vein Obstruction   DEFINITION • Obstruction of the central retinal vein at the lamina cribrosa.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal hemorrhages in all four quadrants. • Dilated, tortuous veins […]

Chapter 114 – Retinal Arterial Obstruction

Chapter 114 – Retinal Arterial Obstruction   JAY S. DUKER         Central Retinal Artery Obstruction Branch Retinal Artery Obstruction   DEFINITION • An abrupt diminution of blood flow through the central retinal artery severe enough to cause ischemia of the inner retina.   KEY FEATURES • Abrupt, painless, severe loss of vision. […]

Chapter 113 – Hypertensive Retinopathy

Chapter 113 – Hypertensive Retinopathy   ADAM H. ROGERS         Chronic Hypertensive Retinopathy Malignant Acute Hypertensive Retinopathy   DEFINITION • Retinal vascular changes occurring from chronically elevated systemic arterial hypertension.   KEY FEATURES • Narrowing and irregularity of retinal arteries. • Arteriovenous nicking (narrowing of retinal veins at arteriovenous crossing sites). • […]

Chapter 112 – Hereditary Vitreoretinopathies

Chapter 112 – Hereditary Vitreoretinopathies   ALAN E. KIMURA           DEFINITION • A group of rare, inherited disorders with primary manifestations that include vitreous and retinal degeneration.   KEY FEATURES • Premature vitreous syneresis. • Retinal degeneration. • Abnormal acquired retinal pigmentation.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive […]

Chapter 111 – Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

Chapter 111 – Congenital Stationary Night Blindness   KENNETH G. NOBLE           DEFINITION • Nonprogressive poor night vision present since birth.   KEY FEATURES • Normal fundus (inherited as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive). • Abnormal fundus (Oguchi’s disease, fundus albipunctatus).   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • The pathology has an […]

Chapter 110 – Choroidal Dystrophies

Chapter 110 – Choroidal Dystrophies   SANDEEP GROVER GERALD A. FISHMAN           DEFINITION • Choroideremia is a progressive, diffuse, bilateral chorioretinal dystrophy with an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. • Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a progressive, diffuse, bilateral chorioretinal dystrophy with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. […]

Chapter 109 – Macular Dystrophies

Chapter 109 – Macular Dystrophies   KIMBERLY DRESNER KENT W. SMALL           DEFINITION • The process of premature retinal cell aging and cell death, generally confined to the macula, in which no clear demonstrable extrinsic cause is evident, and a heritable genetically determined enzymatic defect is implicated.   KEY FEATURES • […]