Archive | December 2010

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Chapter 128 – Macular Hole

Chapter 128 – Macular Hole   JAY S. DUKER           DEFINITION • A full-thickness depletion of the neural retinal tissue in the center of the macula.   KEY FEATURES • Central scotoma. • Round, central neural retinal tissue defect. • Cystic retinal changes in the perifoveolar area that surrounds the macular […]

Chapter 127 – Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

Chapter 127 – Central Serous Chorioretinopathy   WILLIAM J. WIROSTKO JOSE S. PULIDO           DEFINITION • An idiopathic chorioretinal disorder characterized by serous detachment of the neural retina in the macular region.   KEY FEATURES • One or more focal areas of subretinal fluid in the macula. • One or more […]

Chapter 126 – Degenerative Myopia

Chapter 126 – Degenerative Myopia   BRAD J. BAKER RONALD PRUETT           DEFINITION • A poorly understood form of excessive axial myopia that can be associated with potentially blinding complications.   KEY FEATURES • Progressive global expansion with posterior staphyloma formation and secondary macular degeneration.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Premature cataract […]

Chapter 125 – Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Chapter 125 – Age-Related Macular Degeneration   ADAM MARTIDIS MATTHEW T. S. TENNANT           DEFINITION • A common, chronic degenerative disorder of unknown pathogenesis that affects older individuals and features central visual loss as a result of geographical atrophy, serous detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium, and choroidal neovascularization.   KEY […]

Chapter 124 – Choroidal Neovascularization

Chapter 124 – Choroidal Neovascularization   RICHARD F. SPAIDE           DEFINITION • Choroidal neovascularization is an inappropriate ingrowth of blood vessels and accompanying cellular infiltrate originating in the choroid, which extends through Bruch’s membrane to proliferate under the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, or both. It is a common end-stage process […]

Chapter 123 – Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms

Chapter 123 – Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms   JANICE E. CONTRERAS ROBERT A. MITTRA WILLIAM F. MIELER JOHN S. POLLACK           DEFINITION • Localized fusiform or saccular dilation of a retinal arterial vessel within the first three orders of bifurcation.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal hemorrhage (intraretinal, subretinal, preretinal, and vitreous). • […]

Chapter 122 – Proliferative Retinopathies

Chapter 122 – Proliferative Retinopathies   DANIEL A. EBROON SRILAXMI BEARELLY LEE M. JAMPOL           DEFINITION • A heterogeneous group of disorders that features preretinal and optic disc neovascularization.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal new blood vessels. • Optic disc new blood vessels.   ASSOCIATED FEATURES • Retinal ischemia. • Retinal […]

Chapter 121 – Radiation Retinopathy and Papillopathy

Chapter 121 – Radiation Retinopathy and Papillopathy   DESMOND B. ARCHER           DEFINITION • A chronic, progressive retinal and papillary vasculopathy induced by suprathreshold doses of ionizing radiation.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal microaneurysms. • Retinal hemorrhages. • Retinal telangiectatic vessels. • Retinal hard exudates. • Macular edema. • Cotton-wool spots. […]

Chapter 120 – Coats’ Disease and Retinal Telangiectasia

Chapter 120 – Coats’ Disease and Retinal Telangiectasia   JULIA A. HALLER           DEFINITION • A localized, congenital, retinal vascular disorder that consists of abnormal telangiectatic segments of blood vessels that result in leakage.   KEY FEATURES • Retinal telangiectasia. • Retinal capillary nonperfusion. • Dilated intercapillary spaces. • Lipid exudate. […]

Chapter 119 – Hemoglobinopathies

Chapter 119 – Hemoglobinopathies   ALLEN C. HO           DEFINITION • A spectrum of ocular abnormalities, including peripheral “sea fan” retinal neovascularization, that results from an inherited defect in the synthesis of the hemoglobin molecule.   KEY FEATURES • Macular ischemia. • Retinal vascular peripheral nonperfusion. • Retinal hemorrhages: “salmon patches,” […]