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Riot Control Agents (CS, CN)

Riot Control Agents (CS, CN)

Diagnosis

1.
Burning and pain on mucous membranes and skin, eye pain and tearing, tingling of exposed skin

2.
Burning in nostrils, respiratory discomfort, bronchospasm (may be delayed 36 hrs)

3.
No detection method

4.
No specific lab tests
History

1.
Used in France before WWI; first chemical agents deployed during WWI

2.
CS synthesized by Corson and Stoughton in 1928

3.
US used CS extensively in Vietnam

4.
Used by police forces e.g. Ireland, France, Russia, US
Pathophysiology

1.
Irritants, lacrimators, and “tear gas”

2.
Used by law enforcement

3.
High LCt50 and a low effective Ct50

4.
Duration: few mins

5.
CN gas is “Mace”

6.
CS gas is “Tear gas”

7.
CS & CN are SN2 alkylating agents

8.
CN: chloroacetophenone: apple blossum odor

9.
CS: ortho-chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile: pepper odor
Decontamination

1.
Eyes: flush with water, saline; rubbing eyes may prolong effect

2.
Skin: flush with lots of water, alkaline soap and water, or mildly alkaline soln (6% sodium bicarbonate or 3% sodium carbonate)

3.
Do not use hypochlorite soln
Treatment

1.
Usually none is necessary; effects are self-limiting

2.
Pulmonary: asthma, emphysema may need O2, bronchodilators, assisted ventilation

3.
Skin: calamine for erythema
Disposition

1.
Effects of exposure disappear within 30 mins

2.
Admit only if assisted ventilation needed or bronchospasm does not resolve

* Material is taken from the PEPID database
* Copyrighted material – All Rights Reserved
* For more information visit http://www.pepid.com

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