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Chemical Decontamination

Chemical Decontamination
General
Physical
Chemical
Wound Contamination

General

1.
M291 Kit is best universal dry decontaminant for skin

2.
Fresh 0.5% hypochlorite soln with alkaline pH is best universal liquid agent

3.
Hypochlorite soln for use on skin and soft tissue wounds only

4.
Do not use hypochlorite in abdominal wounds, open chest wounds, on nervous tissue, or in eye

5.
Surgical irrigation soln used in abdomen and chest

6.
Copious amounts of water, normal saline, or eye solutions used for eye

7.
Certification: process decontamination facility; M8 paper; M9 tape; M256A1; or by CAM

 Physical Methods

1.
Flush with water or aqueous solns e.g. hypochlorite soln

2.
Adsorbent materials e.g. soap detergents, earth, flour

3.
M291 resin: carbonaceous adsorbent, polystyrene polymeric, ion exchange resins

Chemical Methods

1.
Water/soap wash: fresh or sea water via hydrolysis

2.
Oxidation chlorination: hypochlorite soln, alkaline pH

3.
Alkaline hydrolysis esp nerve agents

Wound Contamination

1.
Initial: bandages removed, wounds flushed, bandages replaced; tourniquets replaced; splints cleaned

2.
Vesicants and nerve agents present hazard

3.
Thickened agents: chemical agents mixed with acrylate to increase persistency

4.
Foreign materials: little risk with individual fibers left in wound

5.
Assessment: CAM used; takes 30 secs; detects vapor

6.
Hypochlorite: 0.5% effective

7.
Wound exploration/debridement: use well-fitting (thin), butyl rubber gloves; hypochlrorite 0.5% used in deep, non-cavity wounds

8.
Instruments placed in 5% hypochlorite for 10 mins

* Material is taken from the PEPID database
* Copyrighted material – All Rights Reserved
* For more information visit http://www.pepid.com

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