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Biological Decontamination

Biological Decontamination

Definitions
Exposure
Environment

Definitions

1.
Contamination: intro of microorganisms into tissues or sterile materials

2.
Decontamination: disinfection or sterilization of infected articles

3.
Decon corridor: area inside secured zone used for decontamination

4.
Warm zone: most contaminated area in decon corridor

5.
Cold zone: least contaminated area in decon corridor where pt exits shower

6.
Dirty side: side of decon corridor with collection containers, water hoses, etc

7.
Clean side: uncluttered side of decon corridor; where team can work

8.
Hazmat protective equipment:

Level B: chemical resistant suit, air respirator; needed in warm zone

Level D: gloves; for suit support

Don: dress in protective gear

Doff: remove protective gear

9.
Training:

Awareness level: initiate code decon response

Operations level: assist in code decon response; 8 hrs training

10.
Decon leader: highest ranking person trained in decon; reports to incident commander

11.
Decon team: min of 3 people; 16 hrs training

12.
Dedicated ventilation system

13.
Disinfection: elimination of undesirable microorganisms to prevent transmission

14.
Sterilization: killing of all organisms

15.
Mechanical decontamination: remove but not neutralize agent e.g. filtering of drinking water

16.
Chemical decontamination: use of disinfectants in form of liquid, gas or aerosol

Exposure

1.
Dermal exposure:

Treat by soap and water

Use brush to ensure mechanical loosening from skin surface structures

Rinse with copious amounts of water

Wash areas with 0.5% Na hypochlorite soln with contact time of 10 to 15 mins

2.
Mix 0.5% Na hypochlorite soln:

1 part Clorox & 9 parts water (1:9) as standard stock Clorox is 5.25% Na hypochlorite soln

Apply soln with cloth or swab

Make fresh daily with pH in alkaline range

3.
Do not use chlorine soln with open abdominal wounds or brain and spinal cord injuries

4.
Non-cavity wounds:

Chlorine soln instilled and removed by suction

Irrigation with saline

Prevent chlorine soln from being sprayed into eyes; corneal opacities result

5.
Clean fabric clothing or equipment with 5% hypochlorite soln

6.
Bio agents harmless:

Dry heat 2 hrs at 160 deg C

Autoclave with steam at 121 deg C

1 atm of overpressure (15 lbs/sq inch) for 20 mins

7.
Solar UV radiation has disinfectant effect in combination with drying

Environment

1.
Equipment:

Contact time of 30 mins prior to normal cleaning

Hypochlorite is corrosive to metals and injurious to fabrics, so rinse and oil metal surfaces

2.
Rooms & fixed spaces:

Gases or liquids in aerosol form (e.g. formaldehyde)

Combine with surface disinfectants

3.
Environmental:

Spray with dust-binding spray to minimize reaerosolization

Chlorine-calcium or lye used

Expensive
 

* Material is taken from the PEPID database
* Copyrighted material – All Rights Reserved
* For more information visit http://www.pepid.com

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