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PNEUMONIA IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

PNEUMONIA IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

Pathogenesis
Microbiology
Complications
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography

Pneumonia is the leading cause of death from nosocomial infection in the United States. The incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in community hospitals and general medicine wards is about 10 cases per 1,000 admissions but is 10- to 20-fold higher in the ICU. The overall mortality rate of pneumonia in the ICU in one study was 50%. Factors such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and development of adult respiratory distress syndrome significantly worsen the prognosis.
Pathogenesis
In the normal host, various defense mechanisms, such as filtration of inspired air by the upper respiratory tract, intact cough reflex, secretion of mucus in the tracheobronchial tree, intact humoral immunity, and pulmonary macrophage clearing of bacteria, keep the lower respiratory tract sterile. When these defenses break down or are overwhelmed by a large inoculum of a virulent organism, pneumonia can occur. Compromise of host defenses is common in the typical ICU patient, who is often debilitated or traumatized. Indeed, stroke, seizure, and drug intoxication (common ICU admitting diagnoses) compromise epiglottic closure and cough, resulting in aspiration of oropharyngeal bacteria. Endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy bypasses upper respiratory filtration defenses. The duration of endotracheal intubation is also important as a risk factor in nosocomial pneumonia, having an estimated additive risk of 1% for each day of mechanical ventilation. Impaired pulmonary macrophage function occurs in hypoxemia, uremia, malnutrition, and heart failure. One study also implicates nasogastric tubes, upper abdominal and thoracic surgery, and bronchoscopy as independent risk factors.
In the ICU, bacteria may gain access to the lung by one of these mechanisms: (a) hematogenous spread (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus may cause pneumonia when an infected intravenous line results in bacteremia and pulmonary seeding); (b) aerosolization, as may occur during respiratory therapy, particularly with reservoir nebulizers (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia); and (c) aspiration of endogenous bacteria colonizing the oropharynx.
Microbiology
Whereas pneumonia acquired in the community is typically caused by pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, pathogens causing pneumonia in the ICU are somewhat different. Most nosocomial, and particularly ICU-acquired, pneumonia is caused by gram-negative bacilli or S. aureus. These bacteria can be found colonizing the oropharynx of most ICU patients, and the prevalence of gram-negative colonization increases with severity of illness. Factors that have been shown to increase colonization include coma, hypotension, acidosis, azotemia, and endotracheal intubation.
The spectrum of microorganisms known to cause nosocomial pneumonia has increased rapidly to include several low-virulence organisms, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium, nontypeable H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. However, the etiologic agents responsible for pneumonia in the ICU have remained predominantly P. aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacilli, such as Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Proteus, and Serratia, with S. aureus a close second. Table 7-1 summarizes these and other agents that cause pneumonia in an intensive care setting.

Table 7-1. Frequency of etiologic agents in ICU pneumonia

There are some pathogens and circumstances worth special mention. S. pneumoniae, the common community-acquired pathogen, is known to cause pneumonia in the ICU occasionally, and superinfection with gram-negative bacilli is not uncommon. Severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia may frequently result in ICU admission, particularly if the organism is penicillin-resistant and inappropriate therapy has been started. S. pneumoniae is by far the most common organism to cause severe, life-threatening pneumonia in elderly patients. Other streptococci, particularly group A and group B b-hemolytic streptococci, as well as enterococci (group D streptococci), can cause pneumonia in the ICU. Predisposing factors for these pathogens include preceding viral infections, coinfection with S. aureus, and previous treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials. H. influenzae, usually nontypeable, is an important respiratory pathogen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and can lead to bronchopneumonia causing respiratory failure. M. catarrhalis, now clearly recognized as an important respiratory pathogen, also tends to occur in those with underlying lung disease, many of whom are receiving corticosteroids. Legionella species have also been implicated in hospital- and ICU-acquired pneumonia; spread of L. pneumophila by aerosol from hospital cooling or hot water systems can potentially make this a serious consideration, especially when sputum Gram’s stain and culture are unrevealing.
Hantavirus is an additional cause of life-threatening pneumonia, first described in 1993 when an outbreak was reported in New Mexico. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is characterized by a flulike illness followed by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Symptoms of fever, myalgia, nausea, and diarrhea are accompanied by tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypotension.
Finally, the nonbacterial opportunistic pathogens such as Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Aspergillus, Phycomycetes, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and varicella-zoster virus occur in a selected population of patients (i.e., the immunosuppressed) and have been associated with poor outcome.
Complications
Pneumonia, especially in the debilitated, critically ill patient, can be complicated by several life-threatening conditions. For instance, when a response to appropriate antimicrobial therapy cannot be obtained, empyema should be considered. When pleural fluid is noted on physical examination or chest x-ray films in the patient with pneumonia, thoracentesis is necessary to rule out infection of the pleural space. Patients with a pleural fluid pH of 7 or less, a glucose level below 40 mg/dL, or gross pus in the pleural space usually require chest tube placement. The organism most prone to cause pleural space infection is S. aureus. However, gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and b-hemolytic streptococci can all produce empyema. Purulent pericarditis, a common complication of pneumococcal pneumonia in the era before antimicrobial therapy, is now rarely seen as a complication of pneumonia. When encountered, purulent pericarditis is most likely to be associated with S. aureus or gram-negative bacilli and to occur in the critically ill patient, particularly after thoracic surgery. The diagnosis of purulent pericarditis should be considered in the pneumonia patient who has not responded to antimicrobial therapy and has signs of an expanding cardiac silhouette or cardiac tamponade, atrial arrhythmias, and chest pain. Echocardiography will demonstrate pericardial fluid, and prompt drainage is almost always required.
An equally important complication of pneumonia in the ICU is meningitis. In patients with pneumonia, abnormal mental status or coma is sometimes attributed to hypoxia or sepsis, and central nervous system infection is not considered. Lumbar puncture must be performed in the patient with pneumonia who is comatose or shows a rapid change in mental status, even if meningeal signs are absent. Initial treatment with vancomycin and ceftriaxone is required if resistant pneumococci are suspected.
Superinfection is likely to occur in ICU patients being treated for pneumonia, especially those on broad-coverage antimicrobials. When an ICU patient deteriorates after initial improvement or becomes febrile, or if a new pulmonary infiltrate develops, one must consider the possibility of pneumonia with a secondary organism.
Diagnosis
The diagnosis of pneumonia in the ICU should be entertained in the patient who has (a) a new or progressive asymptomatic infiltrate, (b) fever, (c) leukocytosis or leukopenia, and (d) purulent tracheal secretions. However, nosocomial pneumonia may be a subtle illness, and the usual clinical criteria for the diagnosis may lead to false-negative rates as high as 66%. The explanation for such potential misdiagnosis includes confusion of atelectasis and pulmonary edema with infectious infiltrate on chest x-ray films, lack of febrile response to infection from the critically ill (especially the elderly), inability to mount an effective WBC response, and poor-quality sputum samples.
The most convincing argument for accurate diagnosis before treatment is the potential for development of superinfection and increased mortality with antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Furthermore, empiric antimicrobial treatment compromises efforts to document infection and recover a causative organism. Also, there is a risk for drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and Clostridium difficile infection, which can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Finally, treating all suspected cases of pneumonia in the ICU with a long course of empiric antimicrobials is an unnecessary and inefficient use of financial resources. Streamlining antibiotic therapy—that is, the practice of converting a broad-spectrum regimen to a more specific regimen on the second or third day of therapy—can help reduce the risk for superinfection and emergence of resistance.
When pneumonia is suspected in the ICU, the physician’s quest to obtain a “good” sputum sample (i.e., one with 25 WBCs per high-power field) should be relentless. Sputum examined by Gram’s stain for bacteria, potassium hydrox-ide for fungi, Ziehl-Neelsen stain for acid-fast bacilli, and, when appropriate, silver methenamine stain for P. carinii may be all that is needed, along with culture results to establish the cause of pneumonia. Often, sputum cannot be expectorated by the critically ill patient because of extreme weakness, poor cough, the presence of an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube, or unresponsiveness. Thus, the nasotracheal suction catheter is often used to obtain a sputum sample. When introduced through an endotracheal tube, the aspiration catheter is capable of obtaining samples representative of true lower respiratory secretion. Often, the critically ill patient cannot tolerate deep suctioning (e.g., because of face or head trauma or induction of oxygen desaturation), and a more invasive technique for obtaining a sample of lower respiratory tract secretion is needed. Transtracheal aspiration is rarely used today because the procedure is not commonly taught, and it is risky when performed by an unskilled operator. Furthermore, the procedure cannot be carried out in an intubated patient.
Percutaneous needle aspiration can be accurate in the diagnosis of a peripheral cavitary lesion or an anaerobic lung abscess. However, it provides a small inoculum of a small sampling area (and is thus prone to yield a high false-negative rate), is contraindicated in the mechanically ventilated patient, and has a high rate of complications, such as pneumothorax and hemorrhage.
Bronchial washings have been of little use in the diagnosis of pneumonia in the ICU. Transbronchial biopsy is helpful in the diagnosis of a central mass lesion, but its diagnostic utility is unproved with pneumonic infiltrates, and it also is associated with the problems of limited sample area and risk for pneumothorax. Bronchoalveolar lavage of samples of more than 1 million alveoli has been shown to be safe and is the method of choice at many institutions. Although some investigators believe that the rate of contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage cultures with colonizing bacteria is high, bronchoalveolar lavage sampling is attractive because it is easily performed at bedside, allows immediate results (Gram’s stain and cell count), and has a low element of risk (only a rare episode of hemoptysis or pneumothorax). Protected specimen bronchoscopy (protected brush) allows collection of lower respiratory specimens protected from contamination by secretions that may pool on the outside of the bronchoscope. With much lower cutoffs for the number of colony-forming units per milliliter to indicate infection (103 for protected brush versus 105 for expectorated sputum), excellent results can be obtained with essentially no false-negatives, suggesting a very high sensitivity. Disadvantages to the use of protected specimen bronchoscopy include reduced accuracy after prior use of antimicrobials, delay before obtaining culture results, concern that protected specimen bronchoscopy samples only a small area of lung, cost, and concern that many centers are not yet equipped to perform these procedures. In general, the role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pneumonia in the ICU patient remains controversial among pulmonologists.
Finally, open lung biopsy, the most invasive procedure, has long been regarded as the gold standard in the diagnosis of pneumonia. Open lung biopsy has been found to have 97% accuracy and a complication rate of 9.6%. Furthermore, the results frequently lead to antimicrobial changes. Despite the accuracy of this procedure, it cannot be performed quickly and easily in most patients (especially ventilated ICU patients), and the complication rate of 10% is too high to justify its use on a routine basis. Open lung biopsy should be reserved for patients in whom other methods of specimen recovery have failed.
Treatment
Supportive measures in the treatment of pneumonia in the ICU include physiotherapy and postural drainage, percussion, and tracheal suctioning to mobilize purulent secretions. These measures may improve gas exchange in the patient with thick, copious secretions. Other supportive measures include intermittent positive pressure breathing, supplemental oxygen therapy, adequate analgesics, and antipyretics. Intermittent positive pressure breathing is used to increase lung inflation in many types of lung disease, including pneumonia. However, its utility in pneumonia is unproved, and its routine use is not recommended in the treatment of pneumonia. Oxygen therapy is critical in patients with pneumonia and documented hypoxemia. Indiscriminate use of oxygen and oxygen toxicity must be avoided. Codeine or parenteral meperidine for analgesia is sometimes needed to allow deeper breathing and coughing. Finally, if antipyretics are used, they should be given around the clock; sporadic use can increase the patient’s discomfort by causing periods of heavy sweating.
The first step in choosing an antimicrobial agent is to obtain a thorough history and physical examination in conjunction with a Gram’s-stained smear of respiratory secretions. In patients ill enough to require ICU admission, bronchoscopy or protected brush is often necessary to determine an etiologic agent. If a good expectorated sputum sample can be obtained and a presumptive diagnosis made on the basis of a Gram’s-stained smear, further diagnostic study is usually not pursued. The treatment of gram-negative pneumonia depends in part on the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of a particular hospital. Treatment of gram-negative bacillary pneumonia in the extremely ill patient requires initial antipseudomonal coverage. Ticarcillin or piperacillin plus an aminoglycoside is the commonly used regimen for the ICU patient. Ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, and imipenem plus cilastatin have been used successfully as monotherapy, again depending on known susceptibility patterns. When staphylococci are suspected in a Gram’s-stained smear, the incidence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci becomes a critical issue. Suspicion of methicillin-resistant staphylococci requires initial therapy with vancomycin. When H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis is suspected, initial therapy with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin is begun. When sputum reveals an abundance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes but no staining organisms, Legionella must be considered and initial therapy with erythromycin begun.
Recently, the Infectious Disease Society of America published guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. For treatment of the patient hospitalized in an ICU, the panel recommended erythromycin, azithromycin, or a fluoroquinolone plus cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or a b-lactamase inhibitor.
Table 7-2 lists the most common causes of pneumonia in ICU patients and the treatments of choice. (S.L.B.)

Table 7-2. Drug regimens of choice for etiologic agents in pneumonia

Bibliography
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Established the high incidence and mortality rate of ICU pneumonia.
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Includes review of treatment response among patients with gram-negative pneumonia.

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One comment on “PNEUMONIA IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

  1. Fantastic blog $author||I really love your blog.

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